Since the Treaty of Rome, the treaties have included broad reference to an “ever closer union”.
Policy and Doctrine
Hybrid CoE is an international hub for practitioners and experts, assisting participating states and institutions in understanding and defending against hybrid threats.
Article 42.7 of the Lisbon Treaty commits member states to aid and assist others that are the victim of armed aggression on its territory.
PESCO is a mechanism allowing interested EU states to cooperate in individual fields and projects, thereby supporting ad hoc multi-speed integration.
EMILYO, or the “Initiative”, involves the exchange of young officers inspired by the EU’s Erasmus student exchange programme.
The EUISS is the EU’s in-house Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) think tank.
The ESDC is an European External Action Service (EEAS) based network training college.
The EDA employs some 170 staff, but through its networks of national experts it engages with around 4,000 defence specialists.
The ECDP is a mechanism to compare national military capability development, anticipate R&D and procurement, and encourage joint measures via the European Defence Agency (EDA).
A growing body of legislation is being produced to develop the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP).